• The most prominent use of computers is to solve problems quickly and accurately.
  • The solution adopted to solve a problem is provided as a sequence of instructions or specifications of activity which enables a user to achieve the desired result.

Software Applications

  • The solution for solving a problem in the field of information technology is achieved by developing software applications.
  • A software application can be defined as a collection of programs that are written in high-level programming languages to solve a particular problem.

Programming Languages

  • The development of software application is done using a programming language.
  • A programming language is used as a medium for communicating the instruction to the computer.
  • The programming language enforces a particular style of programming that is referred to as a programming paradigm.

There are 2 types of Programming Languages


Structure Programming

  • In structured programming paradigm, the application development is decomposed into a hierarchy of subprograms.
  • The subprograms are referred to as procedures, functions, or modules in different structured programming languages.
  • Each subprogram is defined to perform a specific task.
  • Some of structured programming languages are C, Pascal, and Cobol.

Following figure displays bank application activities broken down into subprograms:

  • Main disadvantage of structured programming languages are as follows:
    • Data is shared globally between the subprograms.
    • Efforts are spent on accomplishing the solution rather than focusing on problem domain.
  • This often led to a software crisis, as the maintenance cost of complex applications became high and availability of reliable software was reduced.

Object-Oriented Programming

  • Growing complexity of software required change in programming style.
  • Some of the features that were aimed are as follows:
    • Development of reliable software at reduced cost.
    • Reduction in the maintenance cost.
    • Development of reusable software components.
    • Completion of software development with the specified time interval.
  • These features resulted in the evolution of object-oriented programming paradigm.
  • In object-oriented programming paradigm, applications are designed around data, rather than focusing only on the functionalities.

Following shows different activities involved in the object-oriented software development:

  • Object-oriented Analysis (OOA) phase determines the functionality of the system.
  • Object-oriented Design (OOD) phases determines the process of planning a system in which objects interact with each other to solve a software problem.
  • Object-oriented Programming (OOP) deals with the actual implementation of the application.

An OOP language is based on certain principles that are as follows:

  • Object – Represents an entity which possesses certain features and behaviors.
  • Class – Is a template that is used to create objects of that class.
  • Inheritance – Enables the developer to extend and reuse the features of existing classes and create new classes. The new classes are referred to as derived classes.
  • Polymorphism – Is the ability of an object to respond to same message in different ways.
  • Encapsulation – Is a mechanism that combines data and implementation details into a single unit called class.
  • Abstraction – Is a design technique that focuses only on the essential features of an entity for a specific problem domain.


  • Team of engineers from Sun Microsystems wanted to design a language for consumer devices.
  • Project was named as ‘Green Project’.
  • Team included: James Gosling, Mike Sheridan, and Patrick Naughton.
  • Java was developed in 1991 in Sun MicroSystems.
  • Efforts were taken to produce portable and a platform independent language that can run on any machine.
  • A Program or a software is implemented on different operating system that’s actually called Platform independent.
  • Result was evolution of Java.
  • Initially called ‘OAK’ and later renamed to Java.
James Gosling

In 1995,

  • Internet and Web started emerging and was used worldwide.
  • Sun Microsystems turned Java into an Internet programming language.
  • It emerged as a Web technology that added dynamic capabilities to the Web pages.

In 2009 / 2010,

Sun Microsystems was acquired by Oracle Corporation.

Some Important Points About Java Programming Language

  • It is one of the most popular OOP language.
  • It helps programmers to develop wide range of applications that can run on various hardware and Operating System (OS).
  • It is also a platform that creates an environment for executing Java application. JRE – JAVA RUNTIME ENVIRONMENT
  • It caters to small-scale to large-scale problems across the Internet.
  • Java applications are built on variety of platforms that range from:
    • Embedded devices to desktop applications
    • Web applications to mobile phones
    • Large business applications to supercomputers


  • JAVA resides in mobiles, client machines, server machines, embedded devices, smart phones etc

Java Virtual Machine (JVM)

  • It is an executable engine that creates an environment for executing Java compiled code, that is, bytecode.
  • It is known as a virtual machine because it is an imitation of a Java processor on the physical machine. 
  • There are different implementations of JVM available for different platforms, such as Windows, Unix, and Solaris.


  • Is an intermediate form closer to machine representation.
  • Is an optimized set of instructions executed by the Java runtime environment (JRE)
  • This environment is known as JVM.
  • The same bytecode can be executed by different implementations of JVM on various platforms.
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